International Flight No. 93
|No.||Surname||Given names||Position||Flight No.||Duration||Orbits|
|1||Kizim||Leonid Denisovich||Commander||2||236d 22h 49m 04s||3748|
|2||Soloviyov||Vladimir Alekseyevich||Flight Engineer||1||236d 22h 49m 04s||3748|
|3||Atkov||Oleg Yuriyevich||Research Cosmonaut||1||236d 22h 49m 04s||3748|
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Launch from the Baikonur Cosmodrome; landing with Soyuz T-11 capsule 46 km east of Arkalyk.
Following a one day solo flight Soyuz T-10 docked with Salyut 7 on February 02, 1984. The cosmonauts became the third resident crew of the station. The crew entered the darkened Salyut 7 station carrying flashlights. The cosmonauts commented on the burnt-metal odor of the drogue docking unit, but the station became fully activated.
Several medical experiments under the lead of Oleg Atkov were performed. Physician Oleg Atkov did household chores and monitored his own health and that of his colleagues, who conducted experiments.
Progress 19 docked with the station from February 23, 1984 - March 31, 1984. The freighter transported various cargoes to the Salyut 7 orbital station. The vessel docked with Salyut 7 on February 23, 1984 at 08:21:00 UTC, undocked on March 31, 1984 at 09:40:00 UTC and was destroyed in reentry on April 01, 1984 at 18:18:00 UTC.
The first visiting crew arrived with Soyuz T-11 on April 04, 1984 and remained until April 11, 1984. Soyuz T-11 brought Indian cosmonaut Rakesh Sharma to the station, who conducted an Earth observation program concentrating on India. He also did life sciences and materials processing experiments and became the first yoga practitioner in zero-G.
On April 13, 1984, Soyuz T-11 was repositioned to the front port by rotating Salyut 7, freeing the aft port for Progress 20. The resupply craft was docked to the station from April 17, 1984 - May 06, 1984. The freighter had docked with Salyut 7 on April 17, 1984 at 09:22:00 UTC, undocked on May 06, 1984 at 17:46:00 UTC and was destroyed in reentry on May 07, 1984 at 00:32:51 UTC.
Meanwhile the cosmonauts began the first phase of the Salyut 7 propulsion system repair. The propulsion systems of Progress spacecraft had filled in for the Salyut 7 propulsion system after its main oxidiser line ruptured in September 1983. Progress 20 delivered a special ladder for reaching the area of the damaged line. In addition, before launch the exterior of Progress 20's orbital module was fitted with a special extension with foot restraints, as well as with containers for 25 special tools.
The first EVA was performed by Leonid Kizim and Vladimir Soloviyov on April 23, 1984 (4h 15m). The cosmonauts attached the ladder and prepared the repair site.
The second spacewalk occurred on April 26, 1984 (4h 56m). Leonid Kizim and Vladimir Soloviyov cut through thermal insulation and the stations hull to reach the damaged plumbing. They installed a valve in the reserve propellant line before going back inside Salyut 7.
The third EVA on April 29, 1984 (2h 45m) was conducted by the same cosmonauts. They installed a new propellant line to bypass the damaged section.
Leonid Kizim and Vladimir Soloviyov performed the fourth spacewalk on May 03, 1984 (2h 45m). The cosmonauts installed a second bypass line and covered the opening in Salyut 7s side with thermal insulation. However, they were unable to complete repairs because they lacked tools to close the bypassed propellant line.
Progress 21 docked with Salyut 7 on May 10, 1984 and delivered two 9 m² solar array extensions. The unmanned freighter docked with Salyut 7 on May 10, 1984 at 00:10:00 UTC, undocked on May 26, 1984 at 09:41:00 UTC and was destroyed in reentry on May 26, 1984 at 15:00:30 UTC.
The solar array extensions were added in the fifth EVA by Leonid Kizim and Vladimir Soloviyov on May 18, 1984 (3h 05m).
During the EVA, Oleg Atkov remained inside Salyut 7. He rotated the array 180° to bring its other edge within reach of the spacewalkers, permitting them to attach the second panel without having to move their foot restraints and equipment. The handle used to operate the winch for raising the array broke, but the cosmonauts were able to complete the operation.
Progress 22 was docked to the station from May 30, 1984 - July 15, 1984. The vessel docked with Salyut 7 on May 30, 1984 at 15:47:00 UTC, undocked on July 15, 1984 at 13:36:00 UTC and was destroyed in reentry on July 15, 1984 at 18:52:00 UTC.
The second visiting crew arrived on Soyuz T-12 on July 18, 1984 and stayed until July 29, 1984. The crew included veteran cosmonaut Vladimir Dzhanibekov, Buran shuttle program cosmonaut Igor Volk, and Svetlana Savitskaya. On July 25, 1984 Vladimir Dzhanibekov and Svetlana Savitskaya performed an EVA (3h 35m), during which they tested the URI multipurpose tool. They cut, welded, soldered, and coated metal samples. During their, the six cosmonauts aboard Salyut 7 also conducted Rezonans tests and collected station air samples.
The sixth and final EVA occurred on August 08, 1984 (5h 00m). A pneumatic hand press, delivered by Soyuz T-12, was used to crush both ends of the bypassed fuel line, sealing it. Anatoli Soloviyov and Leonid Kizim also collected a piece of a solar array for analysis. In spite of the repair, Salyut 7's main propulsion system was not used again to boost the station's orbit.
Progress 23 was docked to the station from August 16, 1984 - August 26, 1984. The freighter docked with Salyut 7 on August 16, 1984 at 08:11:00 UTC, undocked on August 26, 1984 at 16:13:00 UTC and was destroyed in reentry on August 28, 1984 at 01:28:00 UTC.
The Soyuz spacecraft is composed of three elements attached end-to-end - the Orbital Module, the Descent Module and the Instrumentation/Propulsion Module. The crew occupied the central element, the Descent Module. The other two modules are jettisoned prior to re-entry. They burn up in the atmosphere, so only the Descent Module returned to Earth.
Having shed two-thirds of its mass, the Soyuz reached Entry Interface - a point 400,000 feet (121.9 kilometers) above the Earth, where friction due to the thickening atmosphere began to heat its outer surfaces. With only 23 minutes left before it lands on the grassy plains of central Asia, attention in the module turned to slowing its rate of descent.
Eight minutes later, the spacecraft was streaking through the sky at a rate of 755 feet (230 meters) per second. Before it touched down, its speed slowed to only 5 feet (1.5 meter) per second, and it lands at an even lower speed than that. Several onboard features ensure that the vehicle and crew land safely and in relative comfort.
Four parachutes, deployed 15 minutes before landing, dramatically slowed the vehicle's rate of descent. Two pilot parachutes were the first to be released, and a drogue chute attached to the second one followed immediately after. The drogue, measuring 24 square meters (258 square feet) in area, slowed the rate of descent from 755 feet (230 meters) per second to 262 feet (80 meters) per second.
The main parachute was the last to emerge. It is the largest chute, with a surface area of 10,764 square feet (1,000 square meters). Its harnesses shifted the vehicle's attitude to a 30-degree angle relative to the ground, dissipating heat, and then shifted it again to a straight vertical descent prior to landing.
The main chute slowed the Soyuz to a descent rate of only 24 feet (7.3 meters) per second, which is still too fast for a comfortable landing. One second before touchdown, two sets of three small engines on the bottom of the vehicle fired, slowing the vehicle to soften the landing.
Soyuz T-11 with the three cosmonauts of the third resident crew departed on October 02, 1984. A new spaceflight record was set.
Last update on May 23, 2016.