Human Spaceflights

International Flight No. 94

Soyuz T-11

Soyuz T-10


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Launch, orbit and landing data

Launch date:  03.04.1984
Launch time:  13:08 UTC
Launch site:  Baikonur
Launch pad:  31
Altitude:  202 - 240 km
Inclination:  51.6°
Docking Salyut 7:  04.04.1984, 14:31:11 UTC
Undocking Salyut 7 (Crew):  11.04.1984, 07:33 UTC
Landing date (Crew):  11.04.1984
Landing time (Crew):  10:48 UTC
Landing site (Crew):  46 km E of Arkalyk
Undocking Salyut 7 (Soyuz T-11):  02.10.1984, 07:35 UTC
Landing date (Soyuz T-11):  02.10.1984
Landing time (Soyuz T-11):  10:56 UTC
Landing site (Soyuz T-11):  145 km SE of Dzheskasgan

walkout photo

alternate crew photo

alternate crew photo

alternate crew photo

alternate crew photo

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No.   Surname Given names Position Flight No. Duration Orbits
1  Malyshev  Yuri Vasiliyevich  Commander 2 7d 21h 40m  126 
2  Strekalov  Gennadi Mikhailovich  Flight Engineer 3 7d 21h 40m  126 
3  Sharma  Rakesh "Rikki"  Research Cosmonaut 1 7d 21h 40m  126 

Crew seating arrangement

1  Malyshev
2  Strekalov
3  Sharma
1  Kizim
2  Soloviyov
3  Atkov

Animations: Soyuz

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Backup Crew

No.   Surname Given names Position
1  Berezovoy  Anatoli Nikolayevich  Commander
2  Grechko  Georgi Mikhailovich  Flight Engineer
3  Malhotra  Ravish  Research Cosmonaut

alternate crew photo

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Launch from the Baikonur Cosmodrome; landing with Soyuz T-10 capsule 145 km southeast of Dzheskasgan. Rakesh Sharma became the first cosmonaut from India.

Following a one day solo flight Soyuz T-11 docked with the Salyut 7 space station on April 04, 1984 and common work with the third resident crew was performed. The crew conducted scientific and technical studies which included 43 experimental sessions, as Earth observation program concentrating on India and silicium fusing tests. Rakesh Sharma used Yoga techniques to combat the debilitating effects of weightlessness. His work was mainly in the fields of biomedicine and remote sensing. The crew held a joint television news conference with officials in Moscow and Prime Minister Gandhi.

The Soyuz spacecraft is composed of three elements attached end-to-end - the Orbital Module, the Descent Module and the Instrumentation/Propulsion Module. The crew occupied the central element, the Descent Module. The other two modules are jettisoned prior to re-entry. They burn up in the atmosphere, so only the Descent Module returned to Earth.
Having shed two-thirds of its mass, the Soyuz reached Entry Interface - a point 400,000 feet (121.9 kilometers) above the Earth, where friction due to the thickening atmosphere began to heat its outer surfaces. With only 23 minutes left before it lands on the grassy plains of central Asia, attention in the module turned to slowing its rate of descent.
Eight minutes later, the spacecraft was streaking through the sky at a rate of 755 feet (230 meters) per second. Before it touched down, its speed slowed to only 5 feet (1.5 meter) per second, and it lands at an even lower speed than that. Several onboard features ensure that the vehicle and crew land safely and in relative comfort.
Four parachutes, deployed 15 minutes before landing, dramatically slowed the vehicle's rate of descent. Two pilot parachutes were the first to be released, and a drogue chute attached to the second one followed immediately after. The drogue, measuring 24 square meters (258 square feet) in area, slowed the rate of descent from 755 feet (230 meters) per second to 262 feet (80 meters) per second.
The main parachute was the last to emerge. It is the largest chute, with a surface area of 10,764 square feet (1,000 square meters). Its harnesses shifted the vehicle's attitude to a 30-degree angle relative to the ground, dissipating heat, and then shifted it again to a straight vertical descent prior to landing.
The main chute slowed the Soyuz to a descent rate of only 24 feet (7.3 meters) per second, which is still too fast for a comfortable landing. One second before touchdown, two sets of three small engines on the bottom of the vehicle fired, slowing the vehicle to soften the landing.

Photos / Drawings



Last update on March 28, 2015.