ISS: Expedition 19
|1||Padalka||Gennadi Ivanovich||ISS-CDR||Soyuz TMA-14||26.03.2009||11:49:18.120 UTC||Soyuz TMA-14||11.10.2009||04:31:43.1 UTC||198d 16h 42m 25s||3130|
|2||Barratt||Michael Reed||Flight Engineer-2||Soyuz TMA-14||26.03.2009||11:49:18.120 UTC||Soyuz TMA-14||11.10.2009||04:31:43.1 UTC||198d 16h 42m 25s||3130|
|3||Wakata||Koichi||Flight Engineer-2||STS-119||15.03.2009||23:43:44.019 UTC||STS-127||31.07.2009||14:48:07 UTC||137d 15h 04m 23s||2166|
|2||Williams||Jeffrey Nels||Flight Engineer|
Launch from the Baikonur Cosmodrome (Gennadi Padalka and Michael Barratt with Soyuz TMA-14). Koichi Wakata arrived on March 17, 2009 with STS-119 the International Space Station.
The Expedition 19 officially began with undocking of Russian spacecraft Soyuz TMA-13 on April 08, 2009 at 02:55:30 UTC and Expedition 18 ended.
On March 31, 2009, Gennadi Padalka raised an issue concerning shared use of facilities such as exercise equipment and toilet facilities. Gennadi Padalka claims that initial approval to use exercise equipment owned by the U.S. government was subsequently turned down. Russian and American members of the crew have now been informed to use only their own toilets and not to share rations. The result was a general lowering of morale on the station.
Progress M-02M was launched at 18:37 UTC on May 07, 2009. Docking with the Pirs module of the ISS occurred at 19:24 UTC on May 12, 2009. On June 30, 2009 it undocked from the Station to begin a series of scientific experiments, having first been loaded with cargo for disposal, including two Orlan-M spacesuits. It subsequently performed a second rendezvous with the ISS on July 12, 2009 to test docking systems installed for the arrival of Mini-Research Module 2. It approached to a distance of 10-12 meters (33-39 ft) from the zenith port of the Zvezda module, with the closest approach occurring at 17:15 UTC. Following this test, it backed away from the station. At 15:43 UTC on July 13, 2009 the freighter performed its deorbit burn, and it burned up in the atmosphere over the Pacific Ocean at 16:28:47 UTC.
Expeditions 19 / 20 included operating 98 experiments in human research, technology development; observing the Earth; and performing educational activities and biological and physical sciences aboard the International Space Station. The experiments have been prioritized based on fundamental and applied research needs established by NASA and the international partners - the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). Russia manages its experiments and requirements separately.
Bisphosphonates as a Countermeasure to Space Flight Induced Bone Loss (Bisphosphonates) will determine whether antiresorptive agents - those that help reduce bone loss on Earth - in conjunction with the routine in-flight exercise program, will protect station crew members from bone loss, which has been observed and documented on previous missions.
Cardiac Atrophy and Diastolic Dysfunction During and After Long Duration Spaceflight: Functional Consequences for Orthostatic Intolerance, Exercise Capability and Risk for Cardiac Arrhythmias (Integrated Cardiovascular) will determine how much cardiac atrophy, or a decrease in the size of the heart muscle, occurs during spaceflight. It will study how fast atrophy occurs and whether it causes problems with the heart's pumping or electrical function.
Validation of Procedures for Monitoring Crew member Immune Function (Integrated Immune) will assess the clinical risks resulting from the adverse effects of spaceflight on the human immune system. The study will validate a flight-compatible immune monitoring strategy by collecting and analyzing blood, urine and saliva samples from crew members before, during and after spaceflight to monitor changes in the immune system.
Nutritional Status Assessment (Nutrition) studies human physiological changes during long-duration spaceflight. Results will impact both the definition of nutritional requirements and development of food systems for future space exploration missions to the moon and beyond. This experiment also will help researchers understand the impact of countermeasures - exercise and pharmaceuticals - on nutritional status and nutrient requirements for astronauts.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Biological Specimen Repository (Repository) is a storage bank used to maintain biological specimens over extended periods of time and under well-controlled conditions. Samples from crew members on the station - including blood and urine - will be collected, processed and archived during the pre-flight, in-flight and postflight phases of the missions. This investigation has been developed to archive biological samples for use as a resource for future spaceflight research.
Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure during Spaceflight-Long (Sleep-Long) examines the effects of spaceflight and ambient light exposure on the sleep-wake cycles of the crew members during long-duration stays on the space station. Results are vital to treating insomnia in space.
A Comprehensive Characterization of Microorganisms and Allergens in Spacecraft (SWAB) will comprehensively evaluate microbes aboard the space station, including pathogens - organisms that may cause disease. This study will allow an assessment of the risk of microbes to the crew and the spacecraft.
Evaluation of Maximal Oxygen Uptake and Submaximal Estimates of VO2max Before, During, and After Long Duration International Space Station Missions (VO2max) will document changes in aerobic capacity for crew members on long-duration missions, greater than 90 days. VO2max is the standard measure of aerobic capacity, and is directly related to the physical working capacity of an individual. By understanding the changes in VO2max in spaceflight, necessary adjustments can be made to exercise regimes for future crews that may help combat any negative effects.
JPL Electronic Nose (ENose) is a full-time, incident monitor designed to detect air contamination from spills and leaks inside the station. It is envisioned to be one part of a distributed system for automated monitoring and control of the breathing atmosphere in inhabited spacecraft in microgravity.
Multi-User Droplet Combustion Apparatus - Flame Extinguishment Experiment (MCDA-FLEX) will assess the effectiveness of fire suppressants in microgravity and quantify the effect of different atmospheres on fire suppression. This will provide definition and direction for large-scale fire suppression tests and selection of the fire suppressant for next-generation crew exploration vehicles.
Materials on the International Space Station Experiment 6 A and B (MISSE-6A and 6B) is a test bed for materials and coatings attached to the outside of the space station that are being evaluated for the effects of atomic oxygen, direct sunlight, radiation and extremes of heat and cold. This experiment allows the development and testing of new materials to better withstand the rigors of space environments. Results will provide a better understanding of the durability of various materials in space.
Serial Network Flow Monitor (SNFM) will study the function of the computer network aboard the station. This information will allow monitoring and improvement in the data transfer capabilities of in-orbit computer networks.
Space-Dynamically Responding Ultrasonic Matrix System (SpaceDRUMS) is a suite of hardware to facilitate containerless advanced materials science. Inside SpaceDRUMS, samples of experimental materials, such as porous ceramics, can be processed without ever touching a container wall. Results will help scientists on Earth determine methods to make better materials for use on Earth and in space.
Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites (SPHERES) are bowling-ball-sized spherical satellites. They will be used inside the space station to test a set of well-defined instructions for spacecraft performing autonomous rendezvous and docking maneuvers. Three free-flying spheres will fly inside the station, performing flight formations. Each satellite is self-contained with power, propulsion, computers and navigation equipment. The results are important for satellite servicing, vehicle assembly and formation-flying spacecraft configurations.
Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor (VCAM) will test the air, water and surface of the station interior for contaminants. The station environment can be contaminated by off-gassing of vapors from items such as plastics and tapes, as well as bacteria and fungi. Results of monitoring the station will provide a new understanding of the closed environment that can be applied to future spacecraft.
Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) uses Arabidopsis thaliana, commonly known as thale cress, to determine how plants perceive stresses such as drought, inadequate light, or varying temperatures in space.
Investigating the Structure of Paramagnetic Aggregates from Colloidal Emulsions - 2 (InSPACE-2) will obtain data on magnetorheological fluids - fluids that change properties in response to magnetic fields - that can be used to improve or develop new brake systems for vehicles, and robotics.
Validating Vegetable Production Unit (VPU) Plants, Protocols, Procedures and Requirements (P3R) Using Currently Existing Flight Resources (Lada-VPU-P3R) is a study to advance the technology required for plant growth in microgravity and to research related food safety issues. It also investigates the non-nutritional value to the flight crew of developing plants in orbit.
Agricultural Camera (AgCam) takes frequent images, in visible and infrared light, of vegetated areas on Earth, such as farmland, rangeland, grasslands, forests and wetlands in the northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain regions of the United States. Images will be delivered within two days directly to requesting farmers, ranchers, foresters, natural resource managers and tribal officials to help improve environmental stewardship.
Crew Earth Observations (CEO) takes advantage of the crew in space to observe and photograph natural and human-made changes on Earth. The photographs record the Earth's surface changes over time, along with dynamic events such as storms, floods, fires and volcanic eruptions. These images provide researchers on Earth with key data to better understand the planet.
Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students (EarthKAM), an education experiment, allows middle school students to program a digital camera aboard the station to photograph a variety of geographical targets for study in the classroom. Photos are made available on the Web for viewing and study by participating schools around the world. Educators use the images for projects involving Earth science, geography, physics and technology.
Education Payload Operations - Kit D (EPO - Kit D) is part of NASA's continuing effort to use space as a unique educational tool for K-12 students. Everyday items, such as toys and tools, are given a new twist by combining them with the allure of the unusual space environment to produce educational materials that inspire interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics.
HICO and RAIDS Experiment Payload - Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HREP-HICO) will operate a visible and near-infrared (VNIR) Maritime Hyperspectral Imaging (MHSI) system, to detect, identify and quantify coastal geophysical features from the space station.
HICO and RAIDS Experiment Payload - Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (HREP-RAIDS) will provide atmospheric scientists with a complete description of the major constituents of the thermosphere, the fourth layer of the Earth's atmosphere where the space shuttle and space station orbit, and ionosphere, the uppermost layer of the Earth's atmosphere, and provide global electron density profiles at altitudes between 100 - 350 kilometers.
Many other experiments were performed during the space shuttle missions that are part of Expeditions 19 / 20. These experiments include:
Atmospheric Neutral Density Experiment - 2 (ANDE-2) will measure the density and composition of the low Earth orbit atmosphere while tracking from the ground two microsatellites launched from the shuttle payload bay. The data will be used to better predict the movement of objects in orbit.
Dual RF Astrodynamic GPS Orbital Navigator Satellite (DRAGONSat) is designed to prove that autonomous rendezvous and docking of two spacecraft can be performed in low Earth orbit. The project also will gather flight data with a global positioning system receiver to demonstrate precision navigation.
Maui Analysis of Upper Atmospheric Injections (MAUI) observes the space shuttle engine exhaust plumes from the Maui Space Surveillance Site in Hawaii. The observations will occur when the shuttle fires its engines at night or twilight. A telescope and all-sky imagers will collect images and data while the shuttle flies over the Maui site. The images will be analyzed to better understand the interaction between the spacecraft plume and the upper atmosphere.
National Lab Pathfinder - Vaccine - 4 and National Lab Pathfinder - Vaccine - 5 (NLPVaccine- 4 and NLP-Vaccine-5) is a suite of investigations serving as a pathfinder for the use of the space station as a National Laboratory after station assembly is complete. It contains several different pathogenic, or disease causing, organisms. This research is investigating the use of spaceflight to develop potential vaccines for the prevention of different infections caused by these pathogens on Earth and in microgravity.
Shuttle Exhaust Ion Turbulence Experiments (SEITE) will use space-based sensors to detect turbulence inferred from the radar observations from a previous Space Shuttle Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) burn experiment using ground-based radar. The research will enhance detection, tracking and timely surveillance of high-interest objects in space.
Spinal Elongation and its Effects on Seated Height in a Microgravity Environment (Spinal Elongation) study will provide quantitative data as to the amount of change that occurs in the seated height due to spinal elongation in microgravity.
Validation of Procedures for Monitoring Crew Member Immune Function - Short Duration Biological Investigation (Integrated Immune - SDBI) will assess the clinical risks resulting from the adverse effects of spaceflight on the human immune system for space shuttle crew members. The study will validate a flight-compatible immune monitoring strategy by collecting and analyzing blood, urine and saliva samples from crew members before, during and after spaceflight to monitor changes in the immune system.
Shuttle Ionospheric Modification with Pulsed Localized Exhaust Experiments (SIMPLEX) will use ground-based radars to investigate plasma turbulence driven by rocket exhaust in the ionosphere - four layers of the Earth's upper atmosphere where space radiation can create an area that reflects radio signals. Results will help in the interpretation of spacecraft engine plumes when they are observed from Earth.
Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure During Spaceflight - Short (Sleep-Short) examines the effects of spaceflight on the sleep-wake cycles of the astronauts during space shuttle missions. Advancing state-of-the-art technology for monitoring, diagnosing and assessing treatment of sleep patterns is vital to treating sleep disorders on Earth and in space.
Human Factors Assessment of Vibration Effects on Visual Performance During Launch (Visual Performance) will determine visual performance limits during operational vibration and g-loads - the standard forces experienced by astronauts during space shuttle launches - on the space shuttle, specifically through the determination of minimum readable font size during ascent using planned Orion crew capsule display formats.
With the arrival of Soyuz TMA-15 on May 29, 2009 at 12:34:16 UTC (Roman Romanenko, Frank De Winne and Robert Thirsk) they became ISS Expedition 20. Gennadi Padalka remained station commander.
During the stay on board of the ISS the crews of Expeditions 19 / 20 carried out the following scientific experiments:
3D-Space (Mental Representation of Spatial Cues During Space Flight),
AgCam (Agricultural Camera - AgCam name used historically from 2005-2010, later version known as ISAAC),
ALTEA-Dosi (Anomalous Long Term Effects in Astronauts' - Dosimetry),
ANDE-2 (Atmospheric Neutral Density Experiment - 2),
ARISS (Amateur Radio on the International Space Station),
Aryl (Influencing Factors of Space Flight on Expression of Strains of Interleukin),
Astrovakcina (Cultivation in Weightless of E.coli- Producer of the Caf1 Protein),
Avatar Explore (Avatar Explore: Autonomous Robotic Operations Performed from the ISS),
Bacteriophage (Investigation of the Effects of Space Flight Factors on Bacteriophages),
Bar (Choice and Development of Methods and Instruments to Detect the Location of a Loss of Pressurization of a Module on ISS),
BCAT-3-4-CP (Binary Colloidal Alloy Test - 3 and 4: Critical Point),
BCAT-4-Poly (Binodal Colloidal Aggregation Test - 4: Polydispersion),
BCAT-5-3D-Melt (Binary Colloidal Alloy Test - 5: Three-Dimensional Melt),
BCAT-5-Compete (Binary Colloidal Alloy Test - 5: Compete),
BCAT-5-PhaseSep (Binary Colloidal Alloy Test-5: Phase Separation),
BCAT-5-Seeded_Growth (Binary Colloidal Alloy Test - 5: Seeded Growth),
Bif (Investigation of the Effects of Space Flight Factors on the Technological and Biomedical Characteristics of Bifidobacterium),
Biodegradation (Initial stage of Biodegradation and Biodeterioration in Space),
Bioemulsia (Research and Development of a Self-Contained Reactor of the Shielded Type For Production of Biomass of Microorganisms and Biologically Active Substances),
Biological Rhythms (The Effect of Long-term Microgravity Exposure on Cardiac Autonomic Function by Analyzing 24-hours Electrocardiogram),
Biorisk (Influence of Factors of the Space Environment on the Condition of the System of Microorganisms-Hosts Relating to the Problem of Environmental Safety of Flight Techniques and Planetary Quarantine),
Biotrek (Influence of the Flow of Heavily Charged Particles of Space Radiation on Gentic Properties of Cell Production),
BISE (Bodies In the Space Environment: Relative Contributions of Internal and External Cues to Self - Orientation, During and After Zero Gravity Exposure),
Bisphosphonates (Bisphosphonates as a Countermeasure to Space Flight Induced Bone Loss),
BLT (Boundary Layer Transition, Detailed Test Objective 854),
BTN-M1 (Examination of the Flow of High Speed and Thermal Neutrons),
Card (Long Term Microgravity: A Model for Investigating Mechanisms of Heart Disease with New Portable Equipment),
CCISS (Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Control on Return from ISS),
CEO (Crew Earth Observations),
Conjugation (Development of Methods for Designing New Recombinants Producing Strains of Bacteria in Space Flight),
DOSIS-DOBIES (Dose Distribution Inside ISS - Dosimetry for Biological Experiments in Space),
DOSTEL (DOSimetry TELescopes),
DRAGONSat (Dual RF Astrodynamic GPS Orbital Navigator Satellite),
DTN (Disruption Tolerant Networking for Space Operations),
Dykhanie (Regulation and Biomechanics of Respiration in Space Flight),
EarthKAM (Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students),
EDOS (Early Detection of Osteoporosis in Space),
EKE (Assessment of Endurance Capacity by Gas Exchange and Heart Rate Kinetics During Physical Training),
Ekon (Experimental Survey on Evaluating the Possibility of Using th Russian Segment of ISS for Environmental Inspection of Work Areas of Various Facilities (Features)),
ENose (JPL Electronic Nose),
Environmental Monitoring (Environmental Monitoring of the International Space Station),
EPO-Demos (Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations),
EPO-Kit D (Education Payload Operation - Kit D),
Expert (Investigation of Early Symptoms of Microdestruction of Structures and Instrument Modules in the Russian Segment of ISS),
Fizika-Obrazovanie (Educational Demonstration of Basic Physics Laws of Motion),
FLEX (Flame Extinguishment Experiment),
Foam-Stability (Foam Optics And Mechanics - Stability),
Get Fit for Space (Get Fit for Space Challenge with Robert Thirsk),
HMD (Demonstration of Head Mounted Display (HMD) System for Crew),
Holter ECG (Digital Holter ECG),
HREP-HICO (HICO and RAIDS Experiment Payload - Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean),
HREP-RAIDS (HICO and RAIDS Experiment Payload - Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS)),
HTV-Environmental Monitoring (Transport Environment Monitoring Package at HTV Cargo Transfer Bag),
Identifikatsia (Identification of the Sources of Dynamic Loads on ISS),
Inflight Education Downlinks (International Space Station Inflight Education Downlinks),
InSPACE-2 (Investigating the Structure of Paramagnetic Aggregates from Colloidal Emulsions - 2),
Integrated Cardiovascular (Cardiac Atrophy and Diastolic Dysfunction During and After Long Duration Spaceflight: Functional Consequences for Orthostatic Intolerance, Exercise Capability and Risk for Cardiac Arrhythmias),
Integrated Immune (Validation of Procedures for Monitoring Crewmember Immune Function),
Integrated Immune-SDBI (Validation of Procedures for Monitoring Crewmember Immune Function - Short Duration Biological Investigation),
Iris (Image Reversal In Space),
ISS Acoustics (International Space Station Acoustic Measurement Program),
Izgib (Effect of Performance of Flight and Science Activities on the Function of On-Orbit Systems on ISS (Mathematical Model)),
JAXA-HDTV (Activation and Test Downlink of HDTV System),
JAXA EPO 1 (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency Education Payload Observation 1),
JAXA,EPO,2 (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency Education Payload Observation 2),
JAXA EPO 3 (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency Education Payload Observation 3),
JAXA PCG (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency Protein Crystal Growth),
Kaskad (Investigation of the Processes of Cultivation of Different Types of Cells),
Kibo Kids Tour (Kibo Kids Tour),
Kontur (Development of a System of Supervisory Control Over the Internet of the Robotic Manipulator in the Russian Segment of ISS),
Lactolen (Influence of Factors of Space Flight on Lactolen Producer Strains),
Lada-VPU-P3R (Validating Vegetable Production Unit (VPU) Plants, Protocols, Procedures and Requirements (P3R) Using Currently Existing Flight Resources),
LOCAD-PTS (Lab-on-a-Chip Application Development-Portable Test System),
MAI-75 (Space Devices and Modern Technology for Personal Communication),
Marangoni-Exp (Chaos, Turbulence and its Transition Process in Marangoni Convection-Exp),
MAXI (Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image),
MDS (Mice Drawer System),
Microbe-I (Microbial Dynamics in International Space Station - I),
MISSE-6A and 6B (Materials International Space Station Experiment - 6A and 6B),
MOP (Motion Perception: Vestibular Adaptation to G-Transitions),
Muscle (Study of Low Back Pain in Crewmembers During Space Flight),
Neurospat (Effect of Gravitational Context on EEG Dynamics: A Study of Spatial Cognition, Novelty Processing and Sensorimotor Integration),
NLP-Vaccine-MRSA (National Laboratory Pathfinder - Vaccine - Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus),
NLP-Vaccine-Salmonella (National Laboratory Pathfinder - Vaccine - Salmonella),
NLP-Vaccine-Survey (National Laboratory Pathfinder - Vaccine - Survey),
Nutrition (Nutritional Status Assessment),
OChB (Influence of Factors of Space Flight on Superoxide Strain Producer),
Otolith (Otolith Assessment During Postflight Re-adaptation),
Photosynth (Photosynth Three-Dimensional Modeling of ISS Interior and Exterior),
Pilot (Individual Characteristics of Psychophysiological Regulatory Status and Reliaility of Professional Activities of Cosmonauts in Long Duration Space Flight),
Plasma-MKS (Plasma-ISS: Examination of Plasmic Environments on the External Surface of ISS Through the Characterization of Optical Radiance),
Plasma-Progress (Observation of the Reflective Characteristics of the Spacecraft Plasma Environment from On-Board Thruster Activity Using Ground-Based Instruments),
Plasma Crystal (Dusty and Liquid Plasma Crystals in Conditions of Microgravity),
Plazmida (Transfer of Molecules of DNA by Conjugation in Space Flight),
PMT (Photocatalyst Material Test),
Pneumocard (Examination of the Influencing Factors of Space Flight on Autonomic Regulation of Blood Circulation, Respiration and Cardiac Contractile Function in Long Duration Space Flight),
Poligen (Revealing Genotypical Characteristics, Defining Individual Differences in Resistance of Biological Oranisms to Factors of Long Duration Space Flight),
Rastenia (Growth and Development of Higher Plants through Multiple Generations),
Relaksatia (Processes of Relaxation in the Ultraviolet Band Spectrum by High Velocity Interaction of Exhaust Products on ISS),
Repository (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Biological Specimen Repository),
Rusalka (Development of Methods to Determine the Carbon Dioxide and Methane (Greehouse Gases) Content in the Earths Atmosphere from On-Board ISS),
SEDA-AP (Space Environment Data Acquisition Equipment - Attached Payload),
Seiner (Development of Procedures of Interactions of the Crew in the Russian Segment of ISS and the State Fishery Committee During the Process of Searching and Exploring Productive Fishing Regions in World Oceans),
SEITE (Shuttle Exhaust Ion Turbulence Experiments),
SIMPLEX (Shuttle Ionospheric Modification with Pulsed Localized Exhaust Experiments),
Sleep-Long (Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure During Spaceflight-Long),
Sleep-Short (Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure During Spaceflight-Short),
SMILES (Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder),
SNFM (Serial Network Flow Monitor),
SOLO (SOdium LOading in Microgravity),
Sonokard (Physiological Functions (cardio-respiratory) of Humans Using Contactless Methods During Sleep in Long Duration Space Flight),
SpaceSeed (Life Cycles of Higher Plants Under Microgravity Conditions),
SPHERES (Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites),
SPICE (Smoke Point In Co-flow Experiment),
Spin (Validation of Centrifugation as a Countermeasure for Otolith Deconditioning During Spaceflight),
Spinal Elongation (Spinal Elongation and its Effects on Seated Height in a Microgravity Environment),
Sreda (Examination of the Features of IS as an Environment for Conducting Research),
SVS (CBC: Self-Propogating Hyperthermal Synthesis in Space),
SWAB (Surface, Water and Air Biocharacterization - A Comprehensive Characterization of Microorganisms and Allergens in Spacecraft Environment),
Tipologia (Study of the Typological Characteristis of ISS Crew Operators Activity at the Stages of Long Term Space Flight),
Try Zero-G (Try Zero-Gravity),
Uragan (Hurricane: Experimental Development of Groundbased System of Monitoring and Predicting the Progression of a Naturally Occurring Technogenic Catastrophe),
VCAM (Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor),
Vektor-T (Study of a High Precision System for Prediction Motion of ISS),
Visual Performance (Human Factors Assessment of Vibration Effects on Visual Performance During Launch),
VO2max (Evaluation of Maximal Oxygen Uptake and Submaximal Estimates of VO2max Before, During, and After Long Duration International Space Station Missions),
Vsplesk (Burst: Monitoring of Seismic Effects - Bursts of High Energy Particles in Low Earth Space Region (Orbit)),
Vzaimodeystviye (Interactions: Monitoring of Space Crew Interactions During Extended Space Flight),
Zag (Ambiguous Tilt and Translation Motion Cues After Space Flight),
Zhenshen-2 (Study of the Development of Cell Cultures to Evaluate the Possibily of Increasing Biological Activity).
Last update on December 14, 2020.