Human Spaceflights

International Flight No. 46

Soyuz 12

Ural

USSR

Launch, orbit and landing data

Launch date:  27.09.1973
Launch time:  12:18 UTC
Launch site:  Baikonur
Launch pad:  1
Altitude:  193 - 248,6 km
Inclination:  51,61°
Landing date:  29.09.1973
Landing time:  11:34 UTC
Landing site:  47° 42' N, 69° E

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alternate crew photo

alternate crew photo

alternate crew photo

alternate crew photo

alternate crew photo

Crew

No.   Surname Given names Position Flight No. Duration Orbits
1  Lazarev  Vasili Grigoriyevich  Commander 1 1d 23h 15m  31 
2  Makarov  Oleg Grigoriyevich  Flight Engineer 1 1d 23h 15m  31 

Crew seating arrangement

Launch
1  Lazarev
2  Makarov
Landing
1  Lazarev
2  Makarov

Animations: Soyuz

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with friendly permission of www.marscenter.it

1st Double Crew

No.   Surname Given names Position
1  Gubarev  Aleksei Aleksandrovich  Commander
2  Grechko  Georgi Mikhailovich  Flight Engineer

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2nd Double Crew

No.   Surname Given names Position
1  Klimuk  Pyotr Iliyich  Commander
2  Sevastiyanov  Vitali Ivanovich  Flight Engineer

Flight

Launch from the Baikonur Cosmodrome; landing 400 km southwest of Karaganda.

Vasili Lazarev became first Soviet Soyuz Commander, who was not a pilot.

Soyuz 12 was a test flight of the new designed Soyuz capsule. The crew capacity of the capsule had been decreased from three to two cosmonauts to allow for space suits to be worn during launch, reentry, and potentially hazardous maneuvers.

As the first manned test of the new version of the Soyuz ferry craft, Soyuz 12 was to have flown to a Salyut station. But the failures of Salyut 2 and Kosmos 557 in the months previous meant there was no station for the craft to dock to. The service module had no solar panels, carrying batteries for power instead, which limited the flight to about two days, enough time for a journey to and from a space station.

A multispectral camera in the orbital module was used in coordination with aircraft to photograph Earth. The intention was to survey crop and forest conditions, it was reported. The cosmonauts also tested using a Molniya 1 satellite to communicate with ground stations when out of range.

A large object was jettisoned when the craft was preparing for retrofire. The object remained in orbit for 116 days, landing 400 km southwest of Karaganda.

Photos

crew in training

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Last update on April 06, 2014.